Read Civil Rights: The African-American Struggle for Equality by Robert Penn Warren Free Online
Book Title: Civil Rights: The African-American Struggle for Equality|
The size of the: 448 KB
Edition: Houghton Mifflin
Date of issue: September 15th 1999
ISBN 13: 9780618003709
The author of the book: Robert Penn Warren
Format files: PDF
Read full description of the books:From Nextext:
After the Civil War ended slavery, the Civil Rights Act of 1868 recognized and established the full citizenship of all African Americans, giving them the same civil rights as white Americans. In 1870 this act was made a part of the Constitution under the Fourteenth Amendment, which granted the right to vote to all males over 21, including minorities, and forbid states from withholding these equal rights to their citizens.
Though legally equal, over the next century African Americans had to fight to fully attain their legal rights, particularly the right to vote. The biggest obstacle was overcoming racial segregation, which took form after the Civil War and became legally binding in 1896 under the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. The second-class status of African Americans was particularly reinforced in the South, where states passed numerous "Jim Crow" laws to divide the races and keep minorities from voting.
The African-American response to this legalized discrimination would eventually become the Civil Rights Movement, through which African Americans personally, morally, and legally fought for freedom and equality. In the 1950's, the movement began in the South, where voter registration drives, boycotts, sit-ins, and other civil rights demonstrations were met with fierce resistance from whites and local governments. By the 1960's, the movement became a national mobilization.
Read information about the authorRobert Penn Warren was an American poet, novelist, and literary critic, and was one of the founders of New Criticism. He was also a charter member of the Fellowship of Southern Writers. He is the only person to have won Pulitzer Prizes for both fiction and poetry. He won the Pulitzer in 1947 for his novel All the King's Men (1946) and won his subsequent Pulitzer Prizes for poetry in 1957 and then in 1979.
Warren was born on April 24, 1905, in Guthrie, Kentucky. He graduated from Clarksville High School in Tennessee, Vanderbilt University in 1925 and the University of California, Berkeley in 1926. Warren later attended Yale University and obtained his B. Litt. as a Rhodes Scholar from New College, Oxford, in England in 1930. That same year he began his teaching career at Southwestern College (now called Rhodes College in Memphis, Tennessee. He also taught at Vanderbilt University and LSU. In 1930, he married Emma Brescia; they later divorced in 1951. He then married Eleanor Clark in 1952. They had two children, Rosanna Phelps Warren (b. July 1953) and Gabriel Penn Warren (b. July 1955). Though his works strongly reflect Southern themes and mindset, Warren published his most famous work, All the King's Men, while a professor at The University of Minnesota and lived the latter part of his life in Fairfield, Connecticut, and Stratton, Vermont. He also received a Guggenheim Fellowship to study in Italy during the rule of Benito Mussolini. He died on September 15, 1989, of complications from bone cancer.
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